## Archive for August, 2008

### Bessler Wheel

August 31, 2008

Subject: Bessler Wheel
Date: Sun, 31 Aug 2008 03:03:12 EDT

There is a website www://www.orffyre.com/overview.html on the Bessler wheel. This site claims that the wheel was accepted by von Leibniz and by Karl, Margrave of Hesse Kassel, who was the only person to see its workings. There is an animation on this site that shows three slings (centrifugal force generators), arranged like a triskelion. My guess is that this is supposed to represent the Bessler wheel. Initial external net torque is needed to generate centrifugal force. If the axis is without an friction, and if there is a complete vacuum, as in deep space, an object put into rotational motion by an applied torque (initial impulse) will continue to rotate at a constant angular momentum. In a triskelion arrangement on the surface of the earth, the force of gravity is parallel to the centrifugal force of one sling, antiparallel to the second and perpendicular to the third, there is also friction on the wheel bearings and air resistance. So a net torque must always be present to overcome these. In a water wheel for example, the water from a stream gives a constant torque. The Bessler wheel is a wheel without any external torque. In the animation by Chris Pelkie and myself on this site (_www.aias.us_ (http://www.aias.us) ), a net external torque was generated on each molecule of a 108 molecule ensemble, so the molecules can be see to be spinning in the animation. Torque is force multiplied by arm. Newtonian torque is measured in the laboratory frame and is the time derivative of angular momentum in the laboratory frame. The Newtonian torque in the lab frame is the sum of the torque as measured in the molecule fixed frame plus the vector product of angular velocity and angular momentum in the laboratory frame. So the torque in the molecule fixed frame is the torque in the lab frame minus omega vector product J (see Marion and Thornton or any good text on classical dynamics). These are the usual rules of classical dynamics, and they should be applied to the Bessler wheel. Unfortunately, there is no design available of the Bessler wheel, only guesswork.

### Is there ever a “Physics Establishment”

August 30, 2008

Subject: Is there ever a “Physics Establishment”
Date: Sat, 30 Aug 2008 11:33:00 EDT

A physics establishment cannot exist in logic, because in the last analysis physics is governed by nature, not by transient human exigency. The establishment can only exist insofar as it is allowed to exist in the psyche of free thinking sceintists. It disintegrates in the face of logic and comparison with experimental data if it does not accept mathematical truth or the way that nature shows things as they are. So any nonsense such as asking secretaries to blacklist new ideas will collapse. So scientists should not be hindered by the feeling that they are on the outside of things, often they are central to progress. The latter takes place while the establishment withers away with time. So there are no heretics in nature any more than one species is more heretical than another. Heresy be definition is a refusal to accept dogma, not a refusal to accept logic.

Civil List Scientist

### Quantum Mechanics from ECE Theory

August 30, 2008

Subject: Quantum Mechanics from ECE Theory
Date: Sat, 30 Aug 2008 06:32:10 EDT

This has found a geometrical basis in the tetrad postulate of Cartan geometry. The tetrad postulate is the direct result of the fact that the complete vector field is independent of its coordinate system. Thus, quantum mechanics originates in the same geometry as the classical equations of physics. The Copenhagen interpretation has been abandoned on philosophical and experimental grounds. All the wave equations of physics have been derived form a generally covariant wave equation based on the covariant derivative of the tetrad postulate. In various limits this gives well known wave equations, including the Dirac, Proca, Schroedinger, and Weinberg equations. The Dirac spinor is a 2 x 2 tetrad in column form. special relativistic wave equations are limits of generally covariant wave equations. Much othe rprogress has been made as recorded on _www.aias.us_ (http://www.aias.us) .

### 1-29Aug08 Rest of World

August 30, 2008

Subject: 1-29Aug08 Rest of World
Date: Sat, 30 Aug 2008 06:22:58 EDT

AMC Australia, Univ Melbourne, UNB Brazil, UNICAMP Brazil, USP Brazil, Canadian net (Sherbrooke, Toronto*, Montreal*, Quebec, Sudbury, Windsor, CCRA ADRC Gov. Canada, Mcgill, NCF Canada, Queens, UO Cuba, PRL India, ITESM Mexico, UMICH Mexico, UMP Malaysia, TACSUP Peru.

### 1-29Aug08 Europe Feedback

August 30, 2008

Subject: 1-29Aug08 Europe Feedback
Date: Sat, 30 Aug 2008 05:57:05 EDT

Univ Basel, Charles Univ Prague, GBH Hannover, Siemens Company, TU Clausthal, Univ Bremen, RUC Denmark, Netsonic Finland, Univ Savoie France, PGSM Hungary, Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, INFN Ferrara, ICTP Trieste, MPM Russia, LTH Sweden, UU Sweden, DZS Slovenia, SPP Slovakia, Chenmistry CArdiff, Cardiff, Physics Liverpool, Nottiongham*, Paisley.

### 15-29Aug08 Selected USA Feedback

August 30, 2008

Subject: 15-29Aug08 Selected USA Feedback
Date: Sat, 30 Aug 2008 05:38:51 EDT

As usual this is a small sample of selected feedback, * denoting multiple visits, these include one from the US Dept. of State.

Brigham Young, Colorado College, Texas A and M, Temple, UC Irvine, UI Chicago, UI Urbana Champaign, U Nevada Reno, Washington, US Food and Drug Admin., US Social Security, US Department of State, Lucie County, Robins Airforce Base*, NMCI Navy*, AT and T, General electric, Hewlett Packard, Motorola, Rockwell Collins, The Aerospace Corporation.

### Feedback Activity for www.aias.us

August 30, 2008

Subject: 1-29Aug08: Feedback Activity for http://www.aias.us
Date: Sat, 30 Aug 2008 05:21:38 EDT

I will give the final returns on 1st Sept. For these 29 days there were 49,302 hits from 7,460 visitors, downloading 521 documents and 3.857 gigabytes from 73 countries, led by USA, Britain, Germany, Canada, France, Taiwan, South Africa, ……. All ECE papers and educational articles and books were read and most Omnia Opera papers. The most read ECE source papers by number were:

45, 94, 116, 107, 115, 117, 21, 2, 63, 93, 1, 89, 103, 113, 61, 76, 12, 90, 7, 109, 112, 114, 93plots, 11, 43, 92, 15, 3, 105, 108, 5, 10, 111, 19, 56, 100a, 106, 110, 14, 23, 67, 8, 16, 37, 47, 68, 9, 100b, 104, 13, …………….

The most read educational articles and books were : Space Energy (Spanish), ECE (Spanish), Johnson Magnets, filtered statistics, Crystal Spheres, ECE and Spacetime, ECE Engineering Model, Galaxies (Spanish), ECE (English), Black hole criticism, Space Energy, Galaxies, Bruhn refutation, Flaw in Einstein Field Equation, Workshop overview, Edyn3, Cosmo7, Royal Decree, Workshop History, ECE (French), Sp. Dev., Numerical Solutions, ECE Model (Italian), Armorial Bearings, Crothers1, ECE German, Crothers2, Metric manifolds, Hehl refutation, ………………

August 30, 2008

Date: Sat, 30 Aug 2008 03:09:22 EDT

The neglect of torsion is the arbitrary assumption (initially made for convenience):

T = 0 – (1)

So the Cartan geometry of the previous note reduces to

D ^ q = 0 (2)

R = D ^ omega (3)

D ^ T := R ^ q = 0 (4)

Without going into any details, it is seen that this is a drastic assumption, and there is no justification for it. The Bianchi identity reduces to

R ^ q = 0 (5)

an equation that was first given by Ricci and Levi-Civita. For some reason it is known in the standard physics as the “first Bianchi identity”. All of Einsteinian general relativity is based on this incorrect geometry. The correct Bianchi identity is given by Cartan:

D ^ T := R ^ q (6)

and neither side of eq. (6) is zero in general. During the course of development of ECE theory (2003 to present) two more identities have been highlighted. These both derive staightforwardly from eq. (6). They are:

1) The dual identity

D ^ T tilde := R tilde ^ q (7)

2) The derivative identity

D ^ (D ^ T) := D ^ (R ^ q) (8)

Here tilde means the well known Hodge dual transformation in four dimensions. The geometry used by Einstein is:

R tilde ^ q =? 0 (9)

and

D ^ R =? 0 (10)

Eq. (10) is known in the standard physics as “the second Bianchi identity”. It is however an incorrect equation, so the =? sign is used in eq. (10). Eq. (9) is also incorrect. The Einstein field equation merely claims that the incorrect eq. (10) is proportional to a quantity in physics. So the whole Einsteinian general relativity is irretrievably incorrect. This has actually been suspeced for ninety years bu tis shown with great clarity by eq. (7) (see papers 93, 95, 100 and 117, and “Criticisms of the Einstein Field Equation”). The ECE theory derives all the equations of physics using the correct geometry due to Cartan. All this is easy to understand, and this major progress in modern physics is being deliberately ignored by the standard faction, who are merely transient dogmatists of no real significance in the history of science.

Civil List Scientist

### General Relativity

August 29, 2008

Subject: General Relativity
Date: Sat, 30 Aug 2008 02:41:42 EDT

In general relativity there are two cornerstones: the constancy of the speed of light and the principle that the equations of physics retain their form under the general transform of coordinates. Special relativity is regained in the limit of the Lorentz transform. The metric is generalized from the flat or Minkowksi metric to a metric in a spacetime with curvature and torsion. The curvature and torsion are described by the connection. The additional idea of general relativity is that the fundamental basis of physics is geometry. This idea is also present in special relativity, but the connection in special relativity is zero. The geometry of special relativity is encapsulated elegantly by Cartan, through two structure equations which lead to the Bianchi identity. In 1915 Einstein arrived at a field equation based on a drastically simplified geometry which threw away torsion. Eventually, in 2007, it was found in paper 93 of the ECE series on _www.aias.us_ (http://www.aias.us) that this leads to a fundamental geometrical self inconsistency, as it is bound to do. Cartan’s structure equations are:

T = D ^ q; R = D ^ omega

where a shorthand notation has been used to reveal the basic structure of the geometry. Here T is torsion (spacetime spinning), D is a kind of derivative, q is the tetrad (a kind of unit vector), R is the curvature (spacetime curving) and omega is the connection. These two equations tell us all we need to know about the geometry upon which all physics can be derived (ECE theory, 2003 to present). They lead to the Bianchi identity: D ^ T := R ^ q

where := means “identical to”. The equations of both classical electrodynamics and dynamics come from the Bianchi identiy and the structure equations with one additional hypothesis (made by Evans in 2003):

A = A(0) q

where A is the electrodynamical potential and cA(0) is a primordial voltage in the universe. Then all of physics follows, plus a lot of predictions about new physics. All of physics is unified by geometry, a claim that has been tested experimentally in many ways (_www.aias.us_ (http://www.aias.us) ).

### Origin of Special Relativity

August 29, 2008

Subject: Origin of Special Relativity
Date: Sat, 30 Aug 2008 02:17:10 EDT

To Kerry: Special relativity is most easily understood as a frame transformation in tensor analysis, using the Lorentz transform. This is described for example in Jackson, Marion and Thornton and Carroll. There are many variations on the theme of special relativity, not just one story. In fact the results of the Michelson Morley experiment are disputed by some scientists. What is true however is that the mathematics of the Lorentz transform have been well tested experimentally in many ways, so special relativity is the most precise subject in physics, not QED (which was heavily criticised in paper 85 on _www.aias.us_ (http://www.aias.us) ). The subject appears to have been started by my predecessor Heaviside, in correspondence with Fitzgerald. There were many scientists who contributed to special relativity. I advocate studying the mathematics of the Lorentz transform as given in Jackson, “Classical Electrodynamics” (third edition). The most important difference between special relativity and Newtonian mechanics is that time is treated as a coordinate, so the dimensions of a vector are increased from three (X, Y, Z) to four (ct, X, Y, Z). The latter is called spacetime. The most important idea is that the tensor equations of physics retain their form under the Lorentz transform. To understand this one needs to understand tensor analysis. This principle was augmented in 1905 by the principle of the constancy of the speed of light, due to Einstein. So these two ideas are cornerstones of relativity. From the Lorentz transform the whole subject is built up. For example the relativistic momentum is p = gamma m v. From this equation comes E = m c squared. In order to understand this properly one has to learn contravariant covariant notation and the Minkowski metric. Playing around with words does not really give any understanding, it tends to confuse people, leading to irrational rejection. Once one learns a few rules of mathematics, the subject is not all that difficult. If one can understand the metric in the Minkowski spacetime, then general relativity follows by adjusting the metric. The proper time tau in special relativity is essentially the shortest time, and we have what is called an infinitesimal line element. As you can see in paper 93, the line element is the start of the calculation in general relativity. From it one gets the metric as a matrix. Relativity is counter-intuitive, and can only be understood if one makes the effort to learn the mathematics. This should be possible for fourteen or fifteen year olds in a good school.