**Subject:** Bessler Wheel

**Date:** Sun, 31 Aug 2008 03:03:12 EDT

There is a website www://www.orffyre.com/overview.html on the Bessler wheel. This site claims that the wheel was accepted by von Leibniz and by Karl, Margrave of Hesse Kassel, who was the only person to see its workings. There is an animation on this site that shows three slings (centrifugal force generators), arranged like a triskelion. My guess is that this is supposed to represent the Bessler wheel. Initial external net torque is needed to generate centrifugal force. If the axis is without an friction, and if there is a complete vacuum, as in deep space, an object put into rotational motion by an applied torque (initial impulse) will continue to rotate at a constant angular momentum. In a triskelion arrangement on the surface of the earth, the force of gravity is parallel to the centrifugal force of one sling, antiparallel to the second and perpendicular to the third, there is also friction on the wheel bearings and air resistance. So a net torque must always be present to overcome these. In a water wheel for example, the water from a stream gives a constant torque. The Bessler wheel is a wheel without any external torque. In the animation by Chris Pelkie and myself on this site (_www.aias.us_ (http://www.aias.us) ), a net external torque was generated on each molecule of a 108 molecule ensemble, so the molecules can be see to be spinning in the animation. Torque is force multiplied by arm. Newtonian torque is measured in the laboratory frame and is the time derivative of angular momentum in the laboratory frame. The Newtonian torque in the lab frame is the sum of the torque as measured in the molecule fixed frame plus the vector product of angular velocity and angular momentum in the laboratory frame. So the torque in the molecule fixed frame is the torque in the lab frame minus omega vector product J (see Marion and Thornton or any good text on classical dynamics). These are the usual rules of classical dynamics, and they should be applied to the Bessler wheel. Unfortunately, there is no design available of the Bessler wheel, only guesswork.