The idea of the gauge field was taken originally from general relativity, and was then used in special relativity, in electrodynamics, weak and strong field theory. In 1955, Yang and Mills introduced the internal gauge space, which is a pure abstract imposed on special relativity. The mathematical structure of Heaviside’s equations (which are not Maxwell’s equations) was used to artificially elevate mathematics into physics via the gauge principle. ECE removes all that paraphenalia and constructs a theory of electrodynamics based again on general relativity. In ECE the commutator of covariant derivatives operates on a four vector to produce the electromagnetic field, because the latter is directly proportional to the Riemannian torsion. The abstract gauge space is replaced by the topologically fundamental a index of geometry. So the space indexed by a is part of geometry and thus of general relativity. I started to realize thsi in O(3) electrodynamics, where the a index is that of polarization, and is not abstract, it is physical and observable. The fundamental nature of this index was also discussed by Donald Reed in an article in “Advances in Chemical Physics”, volume 119(3), which I edited in 2001. The B(3) field is now firmly recognized as a spin connection within B(0), a scalar valued magnitude in tesla. Indeed, all electric and magnetic fields are now recognized as being directly proportional to respectively the electric and magnetic spin connections of spacetime. I was two or three times nominated for Wolf Prizes in physics and chemistry for the discovery of B(3), and perhaps for a Nobel Prize. I was certainly told by Mansel Davies, Jean-Pierre Vigier and John Wheeler that it was very important, and deserved a Nobel Prize if the system were working properly. I was awarded a TGA Gold Medal for it in 2008, and of occurs it has been recognized by two British high honours, along with all my work ovre nearly forty years of research. So I am lucky in getting recognition in an inceasingly political and unruly world of science.

## Replacement of the Gauge Field in Electrodynamics

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