If B = 0 in paper 132 is taken to mean curl A = 0 and A not zero, then A must be irrotational. For example: A = A sub Z k so by antisymmetry: B = 0 E = – 2 partial phi / partial Z = – 2 partial A sub Z / partial t If A sub Z is static (no time dependence), then E is zero and phi does not depend on Z. In this case there is no E and no B on the U(1) level, even if it assumed that A is not zero. It is almost universally assumed in U(1) textbooks that when B is zero, A is zero. The above is the correct argument. If B is zero, A must be irrotational, and not necessarily zero. A static electric field in U(1) dogma is always written as – del phi, and there is no relation between del phi and partial A / partial t. A is almost always assumed to be zero.

## Lifting the Constraint A = 0

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