Elimination of Heaviside’s Potentials from Electrodynamics


My immediate predecessor on the British Civil List, Oliver Heaviside, is the mathematician and scientist actually responsible for the so called “Maxwell Equations”. The Maxwell equations are earlier, complicated, almost unworkable constructs based on Hamilton’s quaternions. Heaviside made many basic discoveries, and together with Gibbs, inferred vectors. Heaviside and Fitzgerald were the two scientists who first inferred relativity theory, shortly after the Michelson Morley experiment. Heaviside deserves to rank with Faraday and Newton as among the greatest of scientists of any era. He introduced the scalar and vector potentials as a mathematical method. The magnetic flux density was expressed as B = curl A, where A is the vector potential. In paper 131 it was found that the antisymmetry law means B = 0 on the U(1) level as Heaviside’s work is rather obscurely known in the dark jargon of “standard” physics. Therefore the magnetic flux density is directly proportional to the magnetic spin connection of generally covariant unified field theory (ECE). The magnetic field cannot be described at all in special relativity. This advance is again the result of elementary, student level, logic as set forth in papers 131, 132 and notes for paper 133. Heaviside expressed the electric field strength E in terms of the scalar and vector potentials. The new antisymmetry law shows that E survives on the U(1) level if and only if the vector potential A is non-zero and irrotational. If A = 0, then antisymmetry shows that E = 0, B = 0. The only way in which to express E in that case is that it be directly proportional to the electric spin connection. There is no a priori reason to assume that if B =0, then A = 0, because B = curl A, and if curl A is zero, A ir irrotational, and not necessarily zero. These are major and already acknowledged advances, made as Newton put it, “on the shoulders of giants”. bcc PM’s Office


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